PDA

View Full Version : Bladesmithing and Metallurgy Definitions



KB1SYV
04-22-2010, 06:54 PM
Hello All,

I spent all day today creating some Word and Excel documents with a bunch of good information...Well, in my opinion, it's really good info. I'm going to try to load up these excel files, but I don't know if they'll load. It's unfortunate too, because I spent most of the day on those.

Well I just found out that I can't upload my Excel files, and those have most of the info.


Jeff

12345678910
04-23-2010, 11:32 AM
For your excel files

If you have XL 2007, you can just save them as a PDF file

for older versions download
http://www.pdf995.com/
and then print as a pdf file

It's a slick way to make a perfect PDF for free.

Wayne Coe
04-23-2010, 03:53 PM
Thanks, I saved 'em all. Now I just have to find the time to study them.

HHH Knives
04-23-2010, 04:31 PM
Ditto, Saved them all.. Thank you for these..

BossDog
04-23-2010, 07:04 PM
Heat Treatment Terms and Definitions



AIR HARDENING STEEL -An alloy steel which does not require quenching from a high temperature to harden but which is hardened by simply cooling in air from above its critical temperature range.
ANNEALING - Applies normally to softening by changing the microstructure and is a term used to describe the heating and cooling cycle of metals in the solid state. The term annealing usually implies relatively slow cooling in carbon and alloy steels. The more important purposes for which steel is annealed are as follows: To remove stresses; to induce softness; to alter ductility, toughness, or electric, magnetic or other physical and mechanical properties; to change the crystalline structure; and to produce a definite microstructure.
AUSTEMPERING - This is a method of hardening steel by quenching from the austenitizing temperature into a heat extracting medium (usually salt) which is maintained at some constant temperature level between 400” and 800” and holding the steel in this medium until austenite is transformed to Bainite. The austempering process is limited to sections less than `/2” diameter. The advantages of this method of interrupted quenching are increased ductility and toughness at the resulting hardness of RC 45-55.
AUSTENITE - The solid solution of iron and carbon which is attained by heating to high temperatures above the upper critical temperature. This temperature or temperature range is called the austenitizing temperature and must be attained to obtain the proper microstructure and full hardness of steel in heat treating. The austenitizing temperature varies for the different grades of carbon, alloy and tool steels.
BAINITE - A decomposition or transformation product of austenite which is a type of microconstituent or structure in steel. This term is used by metallurgists to describe a particular structure of steel when the steel is polished, etched and examined with a microscope.
BRINELL HARDNESS - A hardness number determined by applying a 3000 kilogram load to the surface of the material to be tested through a hardened steel ball of 10mm. The diameter of the depression is measured and the hardness is the ratio of load to spherical area of the impression. Tables of numbers have been prepared, and the hardness is read from the table from the diameter of the depression.
CARBURIZING - Adding carbon to the surface of steel by heating the metal below its melting point in contact with carbonaceous solids, liquids, or gases.
CASE HARDENING - A heat treatment or a combination of heat treatments of surface hardening involving a change in the composition of the outer layer of an iron-base alloy in which the surface is made substantially harder by inward diffusion of a gas or liquid followed by appropriate thermal treatment. Typical hardening processes are carburizing, cyaniding, carbo-nitriding and nitriding.
CYANIDING - Surface hardening by carbon and nitrogen absorption of a steel article or a portion of it by heating at a suitable temperature in contact with cyanide salt, followed by quenching.
DECARBURIZATION - When steel is subjected to high temperatures, such as are used in hot rolling, forging, and heat treating in a media containing air, oxygen, or hydrogen there is a loss of carbon at the surface which is known as decarburization. This resultant loss of carbon or chemistry change at the surface of the steel part reduces the strength of the part by reducing the size of the section and produces a softer surface hardness than the core of the part.
FLAME HARDENING - A heat treat method used to harden the surface of some parts where only a small portion of the surface is hardened and where the part might distort in a regular carburizing or heat treating operation. The operation consists of heating the surface to be hardened by an acetylene torch to the proper quenching temperature followed immediately by a water quench and proper tempering. Generally wrought or cast steels with carbon contents of .30 to .40%, low alloy steels, and ductile and malleable cast irons are suitable for flame hardening.
HARDENABILITY- This relates to the ability of steel to harden deeply upon quenching, and takes into consideration the size of the part and the method of quenching. The test used to determine the hardenability of any grade of steel is the Jominy Test.
HARDENING - The heating and quenching of certain iron-base alloys from a temperature above the critical temperature range for the purpose of producing a hardness superior to that obtained when the alloy is not quenched. This term is usually restricted to the formation of martensite.
HARDNESS - The ability of a metal to resist penetration. The principle methods of determining hardness of steel are the Rockwell, Brinell and Scleroscope Tests.
HEAT TREATMENT - An operation or combination of operations involving the heating and cooling ofa metal or an alloy in the solid state for the purpose of obtaining certain desirable conditions or properties.
MARTEMPERING OR MARQUENCHING - This is a method of hardening steel by quenching from the austenitizing temperature into some heat extracting medium, usually salt, which is maintained at some constant temperature level above the point at which martensite starts to form (usually about 450” F.), holding the steel in this medium until the temperature is uniform throughout, cooling in air for the formation of martensite and tempering by the conventional method. The advantages of this method of interrupted quenching are a minimum of distortion and residual strains. The size of the part can be considerably larger than for austempering. MARTENSITE - A microconstituent or structure in quenched steel which has the maximum hardness of ally of the other steel structures resulting from the transformation of austenite.
NITRIDING - See case hardening.
NORMALIZING - Heating steels to approximately 100 F above the critical temperature range followed by cooling to below that range in still air at ordinary temperatures. This heat treat operation is used to erase previous heat treating results in carbon steels to .40% carbon, low alloy steels, and to produce a uniform grain structure in forged and cold worked steel parts.
OIL HARDENING - A process of hardening a ferrous alloy of suitable composition (generally alloys) by heating within or above the transformation range and quenching in oil.
PEARLITE - Another microscopic structure of steel which is produced by slow cooling or air cooling low to medium carbon and low alloy steels from the austenitic state.
QUENCHING AND TEMPERING - In this operation the procedure consists of heating the material to the proper austenitizing temperature, holding at that temperature for a sufficient time to effect the desired change in crystalline structure, and quenching in a suitable medium - water, oil or air depending on the chemical composition. After quenching, the material is reheated to a predetermined temperature below the critical range and then cooled under suitable temperatures (tempering).
ROCKWELL HARDNESS - A hardness test performed on a Rockwell hardness testing machine. Hardness is determined by a dial reading which indicates the depth of penetration of a steel ball for softer steels and a diamond cone for heat treated and harder steels when a load is applied.
SCLEROSCOPE OR SHORE HARDNESS - A hardness test performed on a Shore Scleroscope Hardness Tester. The hardness is determined by the rebound of a diamond pointed hammer (or tup) when it strikes the surface of a specimen. The hammer is enclosed in a glass tube and the height of the rebound is read either against a graduated scale inscribed on the tube, or on a dial, depending on the model used. This type of hardness testing is generally used on large parts which cannot be tested by either using a Rockwell or Brinell machine.
SUB-CRITICAL ANNEALING - Also Stress Relief Annealing. A heat treating operation used to relieve or dissipate stresses in weldments, heavily machined parts, castings and forgings. The parts are heated to 1150” F., uniformly heated through, and are either air cooled from temperature or slow cooled from temperature depending on the type of part and subsequent finishing or heat treating operations.
TEMPERING - Also termed drawing. Reheating hardened, usually quenched, steel to some temperature below the lower critical temperature followed by any desired rate of cooling after the steel has been thoroughly soaked at temperature. Usual tempering temperatures are 300” to 1100” F.
WATER HARDENING - High carbon grades of tool steel, straight carbon steels and low alloy steels that are hardened by quenching in water during the heat treating operation.

James Terrio
04-23-2010, 07:26 PM
Thanks from me as well. 2thumbs

KB1SYV
04-24-2010, 01:51 PM
For your excel files

If you have XL 2007, you can just save them as a PDF file

for older versions download
http://www.pdf995.com/
and then print as a pdf file

It's a slick way to make a perfect PDF for free.

Thank you, your absolutely right!!! I just need to do some tweakin' and I can load it up. All these definitions are on the internet, I just consolidated them into easily accessible documents. I found some really cool metallurgical charts that I rewrote into an excel spreadsheet which I will be converting into a .pdf so I can load it up for you guy's.

Jeff

KB1SYV
04-26-2010, 12:10 PM
Hi guy's, thanks to Tracy and 1-10 for your assistance. I had to do some tweaking so that the info fit on the right pages and then I converted it to .pdf file. This information is out there, I just consolidated it into one area. I hope it's something that you guy's can use a lot. I'm glad I was able to get some help to upload this because this took half a day to put together! Well hope you like!

I also came across this "Link" (http://www.abana.org/resources/education/chf.shtml) which has some nicely illustrated means to Forging for the new and/or learning.

Jeff

SHOKR
06-29-2010, 12:42 AM
Hello All,

I spent all day today creating some Word and Excel documents with a bunch of good information...Well, in my opinion, it's really good info. I'm going to try to load up these excel files, but I don't know if they'll load. It's unfortunate too, because I spent most of the day on those.

Well I just found out that I can't upload my Excel files, and those have most of the info.


Jeff

I took the liberty and combined them all into one pdf, hope u dont mind

also i can do them separate if u like :)

check the bottom of the file ;)

many thanks for the info and the work